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What is Relativity Theory?

What is Relativity Theory?
The Relativity Theory, which was introduced by the world famous physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) at the beginning of the 20th century, is regarded as one of the greatest scientific developments of our time. The Theory of Relativity consists of two different theories of Einstein: the Theory of Specific Relativity, introduced in 1905 by The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, and the Theory of General Theory of Relativity in 1916 of Relativity). With Einstein's theory, he intended to clarify some phenomena that the Newtonian physics could fail to account for, thus altering the perceptions of mankind for time, space, and gravity. Along with the Quantum Theory, relativity is regarded as one of the two basic distinctions built on modern physics.
Light Speed ​​and Relativity
When thought logically, one can expect the highest cosmic velocity imaginable in the world to be "infinity" without an existing limit. But at the speed of light, it is considered to be the maximum possible speed to reach 300,000 km at the moment, and in practice nothing can reach the speed of light. Albert Einstein, who was only 16 for the first time in the late 19th century, thought about why this was so.
The famous Michelson-Morley experiments in 1887 unexpectedly showed that the light traveling in space vacuum always travels at the same speed regardless of the motion direction of the earth. In other words, light travels at the same speed (300,000 km / h) regardless of its source approaching or departing from the observer, which seems contrary to classical physics and common sense. The fact that the light is moving at a constant speed will be the first support of the Special Relativity Theory that Einstein will build. The second basis is the Relativity Principle, also known as the Immutable Law, first introduced by the Italian physicist Galilei Galileo in 1632. (Note - not to be confused with Relativity!) According to this principle, physics laws of physics are the same for every inactive observer, so it is not possible to separate the motion state from the stationary state by looking only at the result of a mechanical observation. If we want to explain this principle with an example given by Galileo himself. A person who is experimenting in a dark room on the lower deck in a ship that does not sway in a quiet sea at a constant speed can not understand whether the ship is in motion. A more modern example would be a ball that you threw forward in a plane that travels at a speed of 800 km per hour, a ball that you threw in a plane that stood motionless on the ground, and could not be distinguished from each other. By combining the constant velocity of light and Galileo's relativity principle, Einstein arrived at the same speed, regardless of the light observer and source, both of which would travel at the same speed, whatever the speed.

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